How to Make Compost from Household Food Leftovers

Handling organic waste is one of the foremost challenges in modern urban life. Every day, households produce significant amounts of food waste, and if not managed properly, this waste can cause a variety of environmental problems, including the accumulation of waste in landfills and increased greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, rotting food waste can also produce unpleasant odors and attract pests, which can disrupt comfortable living in urban environments. Therefore, it is important for us to find effective solutions to overcome this organic waste problem.


However, with a little effort and knowledge, we can turn these food scraps into something useful: compost. Compost is the result of natural decomposition of organic material which can be used as natural fertilizer for plants. In this article, we will discuss in depth how to compost household food scraps. Apart from providing a solution to waste problems, composting also has many benefits for the environment and plants. Compost can improve soil structure, increase fertility, and reduce the need for chemical fertilizers. We will also share practical tips for optimizing the composting process, so you can easily produce high-quality compost at home.

Understanding Compost and Its Benefits

Compost is produced through the breakdown of organic materials by microorganisms in a controlled environment. This process converts food waste and other organic materials into nutrient-rich material that is very beneficial for the soil and plants. Composting is not only a way to reduce waste, but also a method to return nutrients to the soil naturally.

Some of the main benefits of compost include:

  • Improve soil structure
  • Increases water retention in the soil
  • Provides essential nutrients for plants
  • Reduces the need for chemical fertilizers
  • Helps control soil erosion
  • Supports the growth of beneficial microorganisms in the soil

By composting household food scraps, we not only reduce the amount of waste that ends up in landfill, but also contribute to natural nutrient cycles and support sustainable agriculture.

Materials Required to Make Compost

Before starting the composting process, it is important to know what materials can be composted and which should be avoided. In general, compostable materials are divided into two categories: green materials (rich in nitrogen) and brown materials (rich in carbon).

Green Ingredients (Rich in Nitrogen):

  • Leftover vegetables and fruit
  • Coffee and tea grounds
  • Fresh grass
  • Wild plants (without seeds)
  • Leftovers (no meat, milk, or oil)

Brown Ingredients (Carbon Rich):

  • Dried leaves
  • Wood shavings
  • Paper and cardboard (no colored ink)
  • Rice husks
  • Straw

It is important to maintain a balance between green and brown materials in your compost pile. The ideal ratio is about 3 parts brown material to every 1 part green material.

Ingredients to Avoid:

  • Meat, fish and dairy products
  • Oil and fat
  • Synthetic materials such as plastic
  • Plants infected with disease
  • Pet waste
  • Materials that have been treated with pesticides

By understanding the right types of materials for compost, you can ensure the composting process is effective and produces high-quality compost.

Steps to Make Compost from Household Food Leftovers

The process of making compost from household food scraps is relatively simple, but requires patience and regular maintenance. Here are the detailed steps for making compost:

1. Preparation of the Composting Site

The first step is to prepare a place for the composting process. You could use:

  • Compost bin: Ideal for homes with limited yard.
  • Compost tub: Suitable for larger areas.
  • Hole in the ground: A simple method for composting directly in the ground.

Make sure the composting area has good ventilation and is protected from excess rain.

2. Collect and prepare materials

Start collecting food scraps and other organic materials. Cut large ingredients into small pieces to speed up the breaking down process. Mix the green and brown ingredients in the right ratio.

3. Arrange the Compost Layer

Start with a layer of brown material on the bottom to ensure good drainage. Then, add a layer of green material, followed by a thin layer of soil or mature compost to add microorganisms. Repeat this process until the pile reaches the desired height.

4. Maintain humidity

The compost pile must be kept moist so that the decomposition process runs optimally. The compost pile should have a moisture level similar to that of a squeezed-out sponge, ensuring it is neither too wet nor too dry. If it’s too dry, add water.

5. Stirring and Turning the Stack

Periodically (usually every 1-2 weeks), stir and turn the compost pile to ensure good aeration and prevent compaction. It also helps distribute moisture and heat evenly.

6. Monitor Temperature

An active compost pile will produce heat as a result of the activity of microorganisms. The ideal temperature is between 54-65°C. If the temperature is too low, add more green ingredients. If it is too high, add chocolate ingredients or stir the pile to reduce heat.

7. Waiting for the Ripening Process

The composting process usually takes 2-6 months, depending on various factors such as type of material, pile size, and maintenance. Mature compost will look dark, crumbly, and smell like fresh forest soil.

Tips for Optimizing the Composting Process

To ensure the composting process is effective and produces high quality compost, pay attention to the following tips:

1. Maintain Carbon and Nitrogen Balance: Make sure the ratio of brown (carbon) and green (nitrogen) materials is balanced to support the activity of microorganisms.

2. Humidity Control: The compost pile must be kept moist so that it is not too wet or dry. Proper humidity supports the growth of decomposing microorganisms.

3. Ensure Good Aeration: Stir the compost pile regularly to ensure oxygen is available to aerobic microorganisms.

4. Pay Attention to Ingredient Size: Cut large ingredients into small pieces to speed up the decomposition process.

5. Add Activator: Use a natural compost activator such as EM4 or mature compost to speed up the composting process.

6. Protect from Extreme Weather: Make sure the compost pile is protected from excess rain and direct sunlight.

7. Monitor Temperature Regularly: Use a compost thermometer to ensure the pile temperature is within the ideal range.

8. Avoid Undesirable Materials: Don’t put meat, dairy products, or oily materials in the compost pile to prevent odors and pests.

Composting household food waste is a simple but significant step in reducing environmental impact and supporting sustainable agriculture. This process not only helps reduce the volume of waste that ends up in landfills, but also produces high-quality organic fertilizer that is very beneficial for the soil and plants. By following the steps and tips outlined in this article, you can start your own composting journey.
Remember that composting is a natural process that requires patience and regular maintenance. Start small, experiment with different materials and methods, and don’t hesitate to adapt the process to suit your specific needs and conditions. Over time, you will become more adept at managing your compost pile and perhaps even discover the joy in turning “junk” into “green gold” for your garden. With consistency and dedication, you will soon be enjoying the benefits of homemade compost, while contributing to a cleaner, more sustainable environment.